Does India Allow Dual Citizenship?

India, with its rich tapestry of culture, diverse population, and rapidly growing economy, has always been a melting pot of global influences.

Its Diaspora has spread across every corner of the globe, which has inevitably led to the topic of dual citizenship being brought up quite often. But does India actually allow its citizens to hold dual nationality?

Let’s dive into the intricacies of this subject.

1. The Constitutional Standpoint

According to the Indian Constitution, India does not allow dual citizenship. The constitution is clear in its mandate: an Indian citizen cannot be a citizen of any other country simultaneously.

This is outlined in the Citizenship Act of 1955 which governs the citizenship status in India.

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2. The OCI and PIO Cards: A Middle Ground

In response to demands from its vast overseas community, India introduced the Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card and the Person of Indian Origin (PIO) card, which are often misunderstood as granting “dual citizenship.”

Overseas Citizen of India (OCI)

The OCI card allows foreign citizens of Indian origin (except Pakistan and Bangladesh) to enjoy several benefits that are otherwise reserved for Indian citizens. These include the ability to travel to India without requiring a visa, owning property, and enjoying certain financial and educational benefits.

Person of Indian Origin (PIO)

Although the PIO card was a predecessor to the OCI, it was merged with the OCI in 2015. PIO cardholders were eligible for several benefits, albeit not as extensive as OCI cardholders. After the merger, most of the advantages became synonymous for both cards.

3. Relinquishment and Renunciation

If an Indian citizen takes up the citizenship of another country, they are expected to surrender their Indian passport and are provided with a ‘surrender certificate.’ This is crucial since traveling with an Indian passport after gaining foreign citizenship can lead to penalties. The process and guidelines for renunciation of Indian citizenship are detailed on the Consulate General of India’s website.

4. The Ongoing Debate

There’s been consistent demand, especially from the Diaspora, to reconsider the stance on dual citizenship. Many argue that it can foster stronger ties, economically and culturally, between India and its global community. However, the complexities related to national security, allegiance, and foreign policy have kept the conversation on hold for now.


For now, while India does not grant dual citizenship, it does acknowledge its global citizens through provisions like the OCI.

The debate on allowing dual citizenship is still alive and active, and only time will tell if the Constitution will ever see a change in this regard.


Q1: If I have an OCI, can I vote in India?
A1: No, OCI cardholders do not have the right to vote in Indian elections.

Q2: Can OCI cardholders buy agricultural property in India?
A2: No. While they can purchase other forms of property, agricultural land remains off-limits for OCIs.

Q3: Do I need to live in India for a specific period to be eligible for citizenship?
A3: Yes. As per the Citizenship Act, one typically needs to reside in India for 11 of the previous 14 years and continuously for the 12 months preceding the application.

Q4: I was born in India but now have U.S. citizenship. Can I still apply for an OCI?
A4: Yes, you are eligible for an OCI card if you were once an Indian citizen and are now a foreign national, barring Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Q5: Can a dual citizen hold public office in India?
A5: Since India does not allow dual citizenship, this situation doesn’t arise. However, OCI cardholders cannot hold any form of public office or vote in India.

Understanding one’s rights, especially when it concerns citizenship, is vital. Always refer to official government sources or consult a legal expert when considering decisions related to citizenship.

Categories NRI

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