Navigating the realm of income tax can be quite the challenge. Add in the additional layers of complexity associated with Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and things can quickly seem overwhelming.
But fear not! Here’s a breakdown of everything NRIs need to know about income tax in India.
In this article...
1. Who is considered an NRI?
First things first, you need to determine whether you qualify as an NRI for tax purposes in India.
According to the Indian Income Tax Act, if an individual stays in India for less than 182 days during a financial year or stays in India for less than 365 days during the 4 years preceding that year and less than 60 days in that year, they can be termed as an NRI.
2. Taxable Income in India
Being an NRI doesn’t automatically exempt you from paying taxes in India.
NRIs are taxed only on the income accrued or received in India. So, if you have rented out a property in India, that rent income is taxable.
Similarly, if you have a fixed deposit in India, the interest earned on it is taxable.
3. Exempt Income for NRIs
There are certain incomes that are exempted from tax. For instance, interest earned on a Non-Resident External (NRE) account and Foreign Currency Non-Resident (FCNR) account is tax-free.
Additionally, dividend income received on shares of an Indian company is also exempted from tax for NRIs.
4. Deductions Available to NRIs
NRIs can claim the following deductions under the Income Tax Act:
- Premium paid for health insurance
- Interest paid on loans for higher education
- Deduction for physically disabled NRIs
5. Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)
India has signed a DTAA with numerous countries to ensure that NRIs don’t end up paying taxes in both India and their country of residence.
As an NRI, you can claim relief under the DTAA, which can result in substantial savings.
6. Filing Tax Returns
If your taxable income in India exceeds the threshold limit, you are required to file your tax returns.
It’s now easier than ever for NRIs to file taxes online, but if your case involves complex financial scenarios, it might be wise to seek professional help.
7. Important Points to Note
- Rental Income: If you’ve rented out a property situated in India, the rent received is taxable in India. However, NRIs can claim a standard deduction of 30% on this income, along with deductions for municipal taxes and interest paid on home loans.
- Capital Gains: Capital gains from the sale of property or investments are taxable for NRIs. However, there are certain exemptions and benefits available depending on the holding period and the nature of the asset.
Not paying taxes on time or failing to file your tax returns in India can lead to penalties. It’s essential to be aware of the tax deadlines and make sure that all dues are settled on time.
Double Taxation for NRIs
For many NRIs, the specter of double taxation – paying taxes on the same income in both India and their country of residence – is a pressing concern.
However, India’s proactive stance in forming Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) with numerous countries ensures that the global income of its non-resident citizens isn’t taxed twice.
A DTAA is a tax treaty between two countries that aims to avoid double taxation of the same income. In essence, it allows taxpayers to claim tax relief in one of the two countries, ensuring that they don’t end up paying taxes in both places.
The specifics of the agreement can vary depending on the countries involved.
How Does DTAA Work?
- Exemption Method: One of the methods employed under DTAAs is the exemption method. Here, the income is taxed in only one country and exempted in the other.
- Credit Method: Another approach is the credit method. In this method, the income is taxed in both countries. However, one country allows the taxpayer to take credit for the taxes they’ve paid in the other country. This way, you effectively avoid paying taxes twice on the same income.
Claiming Benefits under DTAA
To claim benefits under the DTAA:
- Tax Residency Certificate (TRC): An NRI should obtain a TRC from the country of their residence. This is essential proof that they are a resident of that country for tax purposes.
- Form 10F: Alongside the TRC, NRIs might also need to submit Form 10F. This form contains necessary details like taxpayer’s status, nationality, tax identification number in the resident country, etc.
- Declaration: The taxpayer must declare that they are a resident of the other country (the one with which India has a DTAA) and not of India.
- Submit Documents: The TRC, Form 10F, and declaration should be submitted to the income payer. This could be a bank (for interest income) or a tenant (for rental income).
Benefits of DTAA for NRIs:
- Avoidance of Double Taxation: The primary benefit is the prevention of double taxation of the same income in both the resident country and India.
- Lower Withholding Tax (TDS): Many DTAAs allow for a reduced rate of Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) on dividends, interest, royalties, etc.
- Certainty in Taxation: DTAAs create a more predictable and stable taxation regime for NRIs, as they can better understand their tax liabilities in both countries.
Conclusion on Double Taxation
For NRIs, understanding the intricacies of DTAAs and how they impact tax liabilities is crucial. It can make a significant difference in the total amount of tax an NRI ends up paying.
As always, given the complexities of taxation, consulting with a tax expert or advisor familiar with the specifics of DTAAs is recommended.
While this guide offers a broad overview, tax regulations and policies can change.
As an NRI, it’s essential to stay updated on the latest regulations. Professional advice is invaluable, ensuring compliance and making informed financial decisions.
Q1: Do NRIs have to pay tax on their global income in India?
A: No, NRIs are only taxed on the income that is earned or accrued in India.
Q2: What is the tax rate for NRIs in India?
A: Tax rates for NRIs are the same as those for Indian residents. However, NRIs do not get the benefit of the basic exemption limit.
Q3: Can NRIs take advantage of the DTAA with every country?
A: No, only with countries with which India has signed a DTAA. Always check the specific agreement details for the country in question.
Q4: How can NRIs avoid double taxation?
A: NRIs can avoid double taxation by availing tax credits in their country of residence for the taxes paid in India, based on the DTAA between the two countries.
Q5: Do NRIs have to file tax returns even if their income is below the taxable limit?
A: If the NRI’s income exceeds the threshold limit in India, only then are they required to file a tax return. Otherwise, it’s not mandatory.
Disclaimer: The above information provides a broad overview of the tax implications for NRIs in India. Given the complexity of tax laws and the potential for changes in rules/regulations, it is always recommended to consult with a tax professional or advisor before making significant financial decisions.